[ 回首页 ]
[ 回论坛 ]
[ 作者专页 ]
送交者: 和合 于 2004/06/05 8:24:3 [治生闲话]
回应 民主制度无法避免类似六四的事件。 by 和合 于 2004/06/05 8:23:7
An Eclectic List of Events in U.S. Labor History
Compiled by allen lutins
American Labor History at University of Cincinnati
Cyber Resources and Links For Labour Activists
LaborNet home page
A Short History of American Labor
The Mining Company's labor history links
The union of Philadelphia Journeymen Cordwainers was convicted of and bankrupted by charges
of criminal conspiracy after a
strike for higher wages, setting a precedent by which the U.S. government would combat unions
for years to come.
27 April 1825
The first strike for the 10-hour work-day occurred by carpenters in Boston.
3 July 1835
Children employed in the silk mills in Paterson, NJ went on strike for the 11 hour day/6 day week.
Two railroad strikers were shot dead and others injured by the state militia in Portgage, New
800 women operatives and 4,000 workmen marched during a shoemaker's strike in Lynn,
13 January 1874
The original Tompkins Square Riot. As unemployed workers demonstrated in New York's
Tompkins Square Park, a
detachment of mounted police charged into the crowd, beating men, women and children
indiscriminately with billy clubs and
leaving hundreds of casualties in their wake. Commented Abram Duryee, the Commissioner of
Police: "It was the most glorious
sight I ever saw..."
12 February 1877
U.S. railroad workers began strikes to protest wage cuts.
21 June 1877
Ten coal-mining activists ("Molly Maguires") were hanged in Pennsylvania.
14 July 1877
A general strike halted the movement of U.S. railroads. In the following days, strike riots spread
across the United States. The
next week, federal troops were called out to force an end to the nationwide strike. At the "Battle
of the Viaduct" in Chicago,
federal troops (recently returned from an Indian massacre) killed 30 workers and wounded over
5 September 1882
Thirty thousand workers marched in the first Labor Day parade in New York City.
The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, forerunner of the AFL, passed a
resolution stating that "8 hours shall
constitute a legal day's work from and after May 1, 1886." Though the Federation did not intend
to stimulate a mass
insurgency, its resolution had precisely that effect.
Late 1885/Early 1886
Hundreds of thousands of American workers, increasingly determined to resist subjugation to
capitalist power, poured into a
fledgling labor organization, the Knights of Labor. Beginning on May 1, 1886, they took to the
streets to demand the universal
adoption of the eight hour day.
Chicago was the center of the movement. Workers there had been agitating for an eight hour day
for months, and on the eve
of May 1, 50,000 workers were already on strike. 30,000 more swelled their ranks the next day,
bringing most of Chicago
manufacturing to a standstill. Fears of violent class conflict gripped the city. No violence occurred
on May 1 -- a Saturday -- or
May 2. But on Monday, May 3, a fight iinvolving hundreds broke out at McCormick Reaper
between locked-out unionists and
the non-unionist workers McCormick hired to replace them. The Chicago police, swollen in
number and heavily armed, quickly
moved in with clubs and guns to restore order. They left four unionists dead and many others
Angered by the deadly force of the police, a group of anarchists, led by August Spies and Albert
Parsons, called on workers
to arm themselves and participate in a massive protest demonstration in Haymarket Square on
Tuesday evening, May 4. The
demonstration appeared to be a complete bust, with only 3,000 assembling. But near the end of
the evening, an individual,
whose identity is still in dispute, threw a bomb that killed seven policemen and injured 67 others.
Hysterical city and state
government officials rounded up eight anarchists, tried them for murder, and and sentenced them to
On 11 November 1887, four of them, including Parsons and Spies, were executed. All of the
executed advocated armed
struggle and violence as revolutionary methods, but their prosecutors found no evidence that any
had actually thrown the
Haymarket bomb. They died for their words, not their deeds. A quarter of a million people lined
Chicago's street during
Parson's funeral procession to express their outrage at this gross mis-carriage of justice.
For radicals and trade unionists everywhere, Haymarket became a symbol of the stark inequality
and injustice of capitalist
society. The May 1886 Chicago events figured prominently in the decision of the founding
congress of the Second International
(Paris, 1889) to make May 1, 1890 a demonstration of the solidarity and power of the
international working class movement.
May Day has been a celebration of international socialism and (after 1917) international
communism ever since.
The Bayview Massacre also took place at this time (for more detailed information visit
http://www.execpc.com/~blake/rollin~1.htm), where seven people, including one child, were killed
by state militia. On 1 May
1886 about 2,000 Polish workers walked off their jobs and gathered at Saint Stanislaus Church in
denouncing the ten hour workday. They then marched through the city, calling on other workers to
join them; as a result, all but
one factory was closed down as sixteen thousand protesters gathered at Rolling Mills, prompting
Wisconsin Govorner Jeremiah
Rusk to call the state militia. The militia camped out at the mill while workers slept in nearby fields,
and on the morning of May
5th, as protesters chanted for the eight hour workday, General Treaumer ordered his men to shoot
into the crowd, some of
whom were carrying sticks, bricks, and scythes, leaving seven dead at the scene. The Milwaukee
Journal reported that eight
more would die within twenty four hours, and without hesitation added that Governor Rusk was to
be commended for his quick
action in the matter.
4 October 1887
The Louisiana Militia, aided by bands of "prominent citizens," shot 35 unarmed black sugar
workers striking to gain a
dollar-per-day wage, and lynched two strike leaders.
25 July 1890
New York garment workers won the right to unionize after a seven-month strike. They secured
agreements for a closed shop,
and firing of all scabs.
6 July 1892
The Homestead Strike. Pinkerton Guards, trying to pave the way for the introduction of scabs,
opened fire on striking Carnegie
mill steel- workers in Homestead, Pennsylvania. In the ensuing battle, three Pinkertons
surrendered; then, unarmed, they were
set upon and beaten by a mob of townspeople, most of them women. Seven guards and eleven
strikers and spectators were
shot to death.
11 July 1892
Striking miners in Coeur D'Alene, Idaho dynamited the Frisco Mill, leaving it in ruins.
The first of several bloody mining strikes at Cripple Creek, Colorado.
5 July 1893
During a strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company, which had drastically reduced wages,
the 1892 World's Columbian
Exposition in Chicago's Jackson Park was set ablaze, and seven buildings were reduced to ashes.
The mobs raged on, burning
and looting railroad cars and fighting police in the streets, until 10 July, when 14,000 federal and
state troops finally succeeded
in putting down the strike.
Federal troops killed 34 American Railway Union members in the Chicago area attempting to
break a strike, led by Eugene
Debs, against the Pullman Company. Debs and several others were imprisoned for violating
injunctions, causing disintegration
of the union.
21 September 1896
The state militia was sent to Leadville, Colorado to break a miner's strike.
10 September 1897
19 unarmed striking coal miners and mine workers were killed and 36 wounded by a posse
organized by the Luzerne County
sherif for refusing to disperse near Lattimer, Pennsylvania. The strikers, most of whom were shot in
the back, were originally
brought in as strike-breakers, but later organized themselves.
A portion of the Erdman Act, which would have made it a criminal offense for railroads to dismiss
employees or discriminate
against prospective employees based on their union activities, was declared invalid by the United
States Supreme Court.
12 October 1898
Fourteen were killed, 25 wounded in violence resulting when Virden, Illinois mine owners
attempted to break a strike by
importing 200 nonunion black workers.
29 April 1899
When their demand that only union men be employed was refused, members of the Western
Federation of Miners dynamited
the $250,000 mill of the Bunker Hill Company at Wardner, Idaho, destroying it completely.
President McKinley responded by
sending in black soldiers from Brownsville, Texas with orders to round up thousands of miners and
confine them in specially
1899 and 1901
U.S. Army troops occupied the Coeur d'Alene mining region in Idaho.
12 October 1902
Fourteen miners were killed and 22 wounded by scabherders at Pana, Illinois.
23 November 1903
Troops were dispatched to Cripple Creek, Colorado to control rioting by striking coal miners.
Labor organizer Mary Harris ("Mother") Jones leads child workers in demanding a 55 hour work
23 February 1904
William Randolph Hearst's San Francisco Chronicle began publishing articles on the menace of
Japanese laborers, leading to a
resolution of the California Legislature that action be taken against their immigration.
8 June 1904
A battle between the Colorado Militia and striking miners at Dunnville ended with six union
members dead and 15 taken
prisoner. Seventy-nine of the strikers were deported to Kansas two days later.
17 April 1905
The Supreme Court held that a maximum hours law for New York bakery workers was
unconstitutional under the due process
clause of the 14th ammendment.
The Erdman Act was further weakened when Section 10 was declared unconstitutional. This
section had made it illegal for
railroad employers to fire employees for being involved in union activities (see 1898).
22 November 1909
The "Uprising of the 20,000." Female garment workers went on strike in New York; many were
arrested. A judge told those
arrested: "You are on strike against God."
25 December 1910
A dynamite bomb destroyed a portion of the Llewellyn Ironworks in Los Angeles, where a bitter
strike was in progress.
The Supreme Court ordered the AFL to cease its promotion of a boycott against the Bucks Stove
and Range Company. A
contempt charge against union leaders (including AFL President Samuel Gompers) was dismissed
on technical grounds.
25 March 1911
The Triangle Shirtwaist Company, occupying the top three floors of a ten-story building in New
York City, was consumed by
fire. One hundred and forty-seven people, mostly women and young girls working in sweatshop
conditions, lost their lives.
Approximately 50 died as they leapt from windows to the street; the others were burned or
trampled to death as they
desperately attempted to escape through stairway exits locked as a precaution against "the
interruption of work". On 11 April
the company's owners were indicted for manslaughter.
2 December 1911
A Chicago "slugger," paid $50 by labor unions for every scab he "discouraged," described his job
in an interview: "Oh, there
ain't nothin' to it. I gets my fifty, then I goes out and finds the guy they wanna have slugged. I goes
up to `im and I says to `im,
`My friend, by way of meaning no harm,' and then I gives it to `im -- biff! in the mug. Nothin' to it."
24 February 1912
Women and children were beaten by police during a textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts.
18 April 1912
The National Guard was called out against striking West Virginia coal miners.
11 June 191?
Police shot three maritime workers (one of whom was killed) who were striking against the United
Fruit Company in New
5 January 1914
The Ford Motor Company raised its basic wage from $2.40 for a nine hour day to $5 for an eight
20 April 1914
The "Ludlow Massacre." In an attempt to persuade strikers at Colorado's Ludlow Mine Field to
return to work, company
"guards," engaged by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and other mine operators and sworn into the State
Militia just for the occasion,
attacked a union tent camp with machine guns, then set it afire. Five men, two women and 12
children died as a result.
Additional web resources are catolged at www.holtlaborlibrary.org/ludlow.html#Web%20Sites.
13 November 1914
A Western Federation of Miners strike is crushed by the militia in Butte, Montana.
19 January 1915
World famous labor leader Joe Hill was arrested in Salt Lake City. He was convicted on trumped
up murder charges, and was
executed 21 months later despite worldwide protests and two attempts to intervene by President
Woodrow Wilson. In a letter
to Bill Haywood shortly before his death he penned the famous words, "Don't mourn - organize!"
On this same day, twenty rioting strikers were shot by factory guards at Roosevelt, New Jersey.
25 January 1915
The Supreme Court upholds "yellow dog" contracts, which forbid membership in labor unions. 22
A bomb was set off during a "Preparedness Day" parade in San Francisco, killing 10 and injuring
40 more. Thomas J.
Mooney, a labor organizer and Warren K. Billings, a shoe worker, were convicted, but were both
pardoned in 1939.
19 August 1916
Strikebreakers hired by the Everett Mills owner Neil Jamison attacked and beat picketing strikers
in Everett, Washington.
Local police watched and refused to intervene, claiming that the waterfront where the incident took
place was Federal land and
therefore outside their jurisdiction. (When the picketers retaliated against the strikebreakers that
evening, the local police
intervened, claiming that they had crossed the line of jursidiction.)
Three days later, twenty-two union men attempted to speak out at a local crossroads, but each
was arrested; arrests and
beatings of strikebreakers became common throughout the following months, and on 30 October
vigilantes forced IWW
speakers to run the gauntlet, subjecting them to whipping, tripping kicking, and impalement against
a spiked cattle guard at the
end of the gauntlet. In response, the IWW called for a meeting on 5 November. When the union
men arrived, they were fired
on; seven people were killed, 50 were wounded, and an indeterminate number wound up missing.
7 September 1916
Federal employees win the right to receive Worker's Compensation insurance.
12 July 1917
After seizing the local Western Union telegraph office in order to cut off outisde communication,
several thousand armed
vigilantes forced 1,185 men in Bisbee, Arizona into manure-laden boxcars and "deported" them to
the New Mexico desert.
The action was precipitated by a strike when workers' demands (including improvements to safety
and working conditions at
the local copper mines, an end to discrimination against labor organizations and unequal treatment
of foreign and minority
workers, and the institution of a fair wage system) went unmet. The "deportation" was organized
by Sheriff Harry Wheeler. The
incident was investigated months later by a Federal Mediation Commission set up by President
Woodrow Wilson; the
Commission found that no federal law applied, and referred the case to the State of Arizona, which
failed to take any action,
citing patriotism and support for the war as justification for the vigilantes' action.
15 March 1917
The Supreme Court approved the Eight-Hour Act under the threat of a national railway strike.
1 August 1917
IWW organizer Frank Little was lynched in Butte, Monatana.
5 September 1917
Federal agents raided the IWW headquarters in 48 cities.
3 June 1918
A Federal child labor law, enacted two years earlier, was declared unconstitutional. A new law
was enacted 24 February
1919, but this one too was declared unconstitutional (on 2 June 1924).
27 July 1918
United Mine Workers organizer Ginger Goodwin was shot by a hired private policeman outside
Cumberland, British Columbia.
26 August 1919
United Mine Worker organizer Fannie Sellins was gunned down by company guards in
19 September 1919
Looting, rioting and sporadic violence broke out in downtown Boston and South Boston for days
after 1,117 Boston
policemen declared a work stoppage due to their thwarted attempts to affiliate with the American
Federation of Labor.
Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge put down the strike by calling out the entire state militia.
22 September 1919
The "Great Steel Strike" began. Ultimately, 350,000 steel workers walked off their jobs to
demand union recognition. The AFL
Iron and Steel Organizing Committee called off the strike on 8 January 1920, their goals unmet.
11 November 1919
IWW organizer Wesley Everest was lynched after a Centralia, Washington IWW hall was
attacked by Legionnaires.
22 December 1919
Amid a strike for union recognition by 395,000 steelworkers (ultimately unsuccessful),
approximately 250 "anarchists,"
"communists," and "labor agitators" were deported to Russia, marking the beginning of the
so-called "Red Scare."
2 January 1920
The U.S. Bureau of Investigation began carrying out the nationwide Palmer Raids. Federal agents
seized labor leaders and
literature in the hopes of discouraging labor activity. A number of citizens were turned over to state
officials for prosecution
under various anti-anarchy statutes.
19 May 1920
The Battle of Matewan. Despite efforts by police chief (and former miner) Sid Hatfield and Mayor
C. Testerman to protect
miners from interference in their union drive in Matewan, West Virginia, Baldwin-Felts detectives
hired by the local mining
company and thirteen of the company's managers arrived to evict miners and their families from the
Stone Mountain Mine
camp. A gun battle ensued, resulting in the deaths of 7 detectives, Mayor Testerman, and 2 miners.
assasinated Sid Hatfield 15 months later, sparking off an armed rebellion of 10,000 West Virginia
coal miners at "The Battle of
Blair Mountain," dubbed "the largest insurrection this country has had since the Civil War" by The
Battle of Matewan Home
1920 and 1921
Army troops were used to intervene against striking mineworkers in West Virginia. Details of these
events can be found in the
extensive and excellent article at www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh50-1.html.
22 June 1922
Violence erupted during a coal-mine strike at Herrin, Illinois. Thirty-six were killed, 21 of them
2 June 1924
A child labor ammendment to the U.S. Constitution was proposed; only 28 of the necessary 36
states ever ratified it.
14 June 1924
A San Pedro, California IWW hall was raided; a number of children were scalded when the hall
25 May 1925
Two company houses occupied by nonunion coal miners were blown up and destroyed by labor
"racketeers" during a strike
against the Glendale Gas and Coal Company in Wheeling, West Virginia.
Textile workers fought with police in Passaic, New Jersey. A year-long strike ensued.
21 November 1927
Picketing miners were massacred in Columbine, Colorado.
3 February 1930
"Chicagorillas" -- labor racketeers -- shot and killed contractor William Healy, with whom the
Chicago Marble Setters Union
had been having difficulties.
14 April 1930
Over 100 farm workers were arrested for their unionizing activities in Imperial Valley, California.
Eight were subsequently
convicted of `criminal syndicalism.'
4 May 1931
Gun-toting vigilantes attack striking miners in Harlan County, Kentucky.
7 March 1932
Police kill striking workers at Ford's Dearborn, Michigan plant.
10 October 1933
18,000 cotton workers went on strikein Pixley, California. Four were killed before a pay-hike was
The Electric Auto-Lite Strike. In Toledo, OH, two strikers were killed and over two hundred
wounded by National
Guardsmen. Some 1300 National Guard troops, including included eight rifle companies and three
machine gun companies,
were called in to disperse the protestors.
International Longshoremans and Warehouse union strike of 1934. Two longshoremen, Nick
Bordoise and Howard Sperry,
were shot to death by the San Francisco Police. May 1934
Police stormed striking truck drivers in Minneapolis who were attempting to prevent truck
movement in the market area.
1 September - 22 September 1934
A strike in Woonsocket, RI, part of a national movement to obtain a minimum wage for textile
workers, resulted in the deaths
of three workers. Over 420,000 workers ultimately went on strike.
9 November 1935
The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was formed to expand industrial unionism.
11 February 1937
General Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers union following a sit-down strike. Two
months later, company guards
beat up UAW leaders at the River Rouge, Michigan plant.
26 May 1937
The 'Battle of the Overpass'. Walter Reuther and a group of UAW supporters, fresh from having
organized GM and Chyrsler,
attempting to distribute leaflets at Gate 4 of the Ford Motor Company's River Rouge plant, and
were beaten up (together with
bystanders) by Ford Service Department guards. 30 May 1937
Police killed 10 and wounded 30 during the "Memorial Day Massacre" at the Republic Steel plant
25 June 1938
The Wages and Hours (later Fair Labor Standards) Act is passed, banning child labor and setting
the 40-hour work week. The
Act went into effect in October 1940, and was upheld in the Supreme Court on 3 February 1941.
27 February 1939
The Supreme Court rules that sit-down strikes are illegal.
20 June 1941
Henry Ford recognizes the UAW.
15 December 1941
The AFL pledges that there will be no strikes in defense-related industry plants for the duration of
28 December 1944
President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the Army to seize the executive offices of Montgomery
Ward and Company after the
corporation failed to comply with a National War Labor Board directive regarding union shops.
Workers in packinghouses nation-wide went on strike.
1 April 1946
A strike by 400,000 mine workers in the U.S. began. U.S. troops seized railroads and coal mines
the following month.
4 October 1946
The U.S. Navy seized oil refineries in order to break a 20-state post-war strike.
20 June 1947
The Taft-Hartley Labor Act, curbing strikes, was vetoed by President Truman. Congress overrode
20 April 1948
Labor leader Walter Reuther was shot and seriously wounded by would-be assassins.
27 August 1950
President Truman ordered the U.S. Army to seize all the nation's railroads to prevent a general
strike. The railroads were not
returned to their owners until two years later.
8 April 1952
President Truman ordered the U.S. Army to seize the nation's steel mills to avert a strike. The act
was ruled to be illegal by the
Supreme Court on 2 June.
5 December 1955
The two largest labor organizations in the U.S. merged to form the AFL-CIO, with a membership
estimated at 15 million.
5 April 1956
Columnist Victor Riesel, a crusader against labor racketeers, was blinded in New York City when
a hired assailant threw
sulfuric acid in his face.
14 September 1959
The Landrum-Griffin Act passes, restricting union activity.
7 November 1959
The Taft-Hartley Act is invoked by the Supreme Court to break a steel strike.
1 April 1963
The longest newspaper strike in U.S. history ended. The 9 major newspapers in New York City
had ceased publication over
100 days before.
10 June 1963
Congress passes a law mandating equal pay to women.
5 January 1970
Joseph A. Yablonski, unsuccessful reform candidate to unseat "Tough Tony" Boyle as President of
the United Mine Workers,
was murdered, along with his wife and daughter, in their Clarksville, Pennsylvania home by
assassins acting on Boyle's orders.
Boyle was later convicted of the killing. West Virginia miners went on strike the following day in
18 March 1970
The first mass work stoppage in the 195-year history of the Post Office Department began with a
walkout of letter carriers in
Brooklyn and Manhattan, soon involving 210,000 of the nation's 750,000 postal employees. With
mail service virtually
paralzyed in New York, Detroit, and Philadelphia, President Nixon declared a state of national
emergency and assigned
military units to New York City post offices. The stand-off culminated two weeks later.
29 July 1970
United Farm Workers forced California grape growers to sign an agreement after a five-year
3 August 1981
Federal air traffic controllers began a nationwide strike after their union rejected the government's
final offer for a new contract.
Most of the 13,000 striking controllers defied the back-to-work order, and were dismissed by
President Reagan on 5 August.
A boycott was initiated by the Industrial Association of Machinists against Brown & Sharpe, a
machine, precision, measuring
and cutting tool manufacturer, headquartered in Rhode Island. The boycott was called after the
firm refused to bargain in good
faith (withdrawing previously negotiated clauses in the contract), and forced the union into an
unwanted and bitter strike during
which police sprayed pepper gas on some 800 IAM pickets at the company's North Kingston
plant in early 1982. Three
weeks later, a machinist narrowly escaped serious injury when a shot fired into the picket line hit
his belt buckle. The National
Labor Relations Board subsequently charged Brown & Sharpe with regressive bargaining, and of
entering into negotiations with
the express purpose of not reaching an agreement with the union.
6 October 1986
1,700 female flight attendants won an 18-year lawsuit (which included $37 million in damages)
against United Arilines, which
had fired them for getting married.
24 October 1987
The 35-member executive council of the AFL-CIO decided unanimously to readmit the 1.6-million
member Teamsters Union
to its ranks. The scandal-ridden union had been expelled from the federation in 1957. President
Jackie Presser was awaiting
trial at the time, and the U.S. Justice Department was considering removal of the union's leadership
because of possible links to
17 September 1989
Ninety-eight miners and a minister occupied the the Pittston Coal Company's Moss 3 preparation
plant in Carbo, Virginia,
beginning a year-long strike against Pittston Coal. While a month-long Soviet coal strike dominated
U.S. news broadcasts, the
year-long Pittston strike garnered almost no mainstream press coverage whatsoever.
[ 回首页 ]
[ 回论坛 ]
[ 作者专页 ]